Babylonian Mathematics

Yale Babylonian Collection (YB7289) 1700 BCE

Plimpton 322 1800 BCE

Ahmes (~1680-1620 BCE in Egypt) and Ancient Egyptian mathematics

Rhind Papyrus

Accurate reckoning: the entrance into knowledge of all existing things and all obscure secrets.

Quoted in A B Chase, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Reston Va. 1967)

Rhind Papyrus

Chinese Mathematics

The 'hsuan-thu' [Zhou Bi Suan Jing (1046-256 BCE with commentary added in 263)]

Baudhayana (8th century BCE in India) and Ancient Indian Mathematics

Baudhayana Sulba Sutra

Hayashi, Takao (2005), "Indian Mathematics", in Flood, Gavin, The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 616 pages, pp. 360-375, 360-375, ISBN 9781405132510.

African geometry is filled with symmetric and geometric figures.

Hunter-gatherers of the Kalahari desertin southern Africa learned to track animals by the shape of their footprints and dropping - what animal passed by, how long ago, if it was hungry or not, etc.

Liebenberg, p. 45,in 1990, concludes that this type of science may have been practiced long ago

Euclid of Alexandria (~325-265 BCE) Ancient Greek Mathematics

(75-125)

(1274)

Mathematical Journey by Stanley Gudder (p. 112)

Proclus Commentary on Euclid's Elements, book ii. chap. iv. 450 AD

Eratosthenes of Cyrene (now Shahhat Libya) 276-194 BCE

A 19th century reproduction of Eratosthenes' map of the world [Jeananda, Col. Enchanted Learning. 2005. 3 Mar. 2005 http://www.enchantedlearning.com/africa/egypt/outlinemap/]

From a column at Alexandria with an epigram [T L Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics (2 vols.) (Oxford, 1921)]

Mayan Mathematics - they made remakable and accurate astronomical measurements. Here is a resource on Maya Geometry in the Classroom:

Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (973 - 1048 in Uzbekistan and Afganistan) and Arabic/Islamic Mathematics

The chronology of ancient nations and their history Edinburgh University Library MS 161: 1307-8

Alberuni's India, by Edward C. Sachau, 2 vol. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co Ltd., London. 1910

He found the radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16th century. He used height of a mountain, the angle with the horizon, and the law of sines.