- Arrays and their operations
- Matrix and their operations
- Some Linear Algebra in MATLAB

In this lab you will learn about some of the commands used in MATLAB.

Preparations

First use putty to connect to student machine, make sure your login ID and password work, then type MATLAB to make sure MATLAB works. Then leave the session on student. We will use MATLAB on PC's to get this lab done. You can do some of this on student though. To get MATLAB with graphics when you use putty, you need to run

This will open MATLAB software.

It is best that you create a directory lab0 before we start. If you do not wish to do so right now, you can do this later on during the lab. I assume, you are completing this lab on a PC. You are required to answer some questions and e-mail the answer either as an attachment or as the body of an e-mail. Here is the questions in plain text and in MS Word format. My e-mail address is rt@cs.appstate.edu.

We will use the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox in this course. MATLAB is a matrix-based application. We will utilize the tools and commands that are already built into the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox to do some simulations. In this lab, we will learn some of the commands and will also review some of the basic concepts of linear algebra.

To start MATLAB on a PC double
click on the MATLAB icon.

To create an array,

>> t = [1 2 3 4 5]

This creates the array **t **with 5 members, 1, 2, 3, 4, and
5. Note that in this case all 5 members are sequential. We
could use:

>> t = 1:5

to create the same array.

We can also create an array by giving the beginning number, the end number and an step size (increment). In the above example, the step size is 1, thus, we could do the following:

>> t = 1:1:5

In this case the middle number is the step size. Try the following command to see the difference:

>> t = 1:0.5:5

1. Write the result on the
answer-sheet.

In this case the step size is 0.5. There are many built-in
functions in MATLAB, for example: *sin, cos, sqrt, .... *MATLAB
also allows you to add your own function.

Note that the first array member in the MATLAB is **t(1)**.
In order to access a particular member of an array, we use the index
corresponding to that member. For example, in array **t **the
3rd member is **t(3)**.

2. What is the value of **t(3)**?

To find the answer simply type:

>> t(3)

As you may have noticed, in MATLAB the array index starts from 1.

As we discussed in class when you multiply two matrices, you have to
be careful about the dimension. For example, if a matrix A is of
size **n **by** 3**, then it only can be
multiplied by a matrix of size **3
**by** m** . Note
that **n** and **m** are arbitrary numbers and the only
requirement is that the two middle numbers be the same. Thus,
number of columns in the first matrix must be the same as number of
rows in the second matrix.

Suppose we want to multiply **t **by itself. You have
already generated **t **as an array with one row and 9
columns. Thus, you have to write the **t** as a 9 row by 1
column to be able to multiply it by itself. Therefore, we
need to transpose the second **t.**

To compute the transpose of a matrix we will use,** '**.
Write the transpose of matrix **t **on a piece of paper. Here is
how we create the transpose of t
in MATLAB:

>> t_transpose = t'

Transpose of a matrix is the same matrix with rows and columns
switched.

There are some powerful operators and functions in MATLAB that make
our life much easier. For example, if you want to compute the sum
of all members in **t,** you can use the sum function:

>> sum = sum(t)

Check your answer to make sure it is correct.

3. Compute the average, median, maximum, and minimum for array t. If you
need help, use the help at the MATLAB prompt or use the online PDF
document on our web site.

There are many different commands in MATLAB that we will use
throughout this semester. One powerful tool in MATLAB is the
plotting routine. To plot **t,** you can simply run:

>> plot(t)

Of course, you can use *help plot* to learn about different
options that you can use with plot.

*Note: in the above example,
although t was an array we call it a matrix. An array can be
viewed as a matrix with one row and some columns.*

Suppose we have a 3x3 matrix, A, defined as;

and another one with the same size, B, defined as;

How do we enter these matrices in MATLAB.

First method:

A = [20 22 18; 12 16 12; 8 10 10]

The output will looks like this:

A =

20 22 18

12 16 12

8 10 10

Second method:

B =* *[2 4 8

1 -1 6

-2 2 4]

The output looks like this:

B =

2
4 8

1 -1
6

-2
2 4

Let's try a few of the *linear algebra *operations
here. Suppose, you want to find the transpose of matrix A, rows
are interchanged with columns, and call the new matrix C.

>> C = A'

This generates the following output;

C =

20 12 8

22 16 10

18 12 10

4. Multiply matrix A by matrix B on paper.

Confirm your answer with MATLAB

>> D = A*B

D =

26 94 364

16 56 240

6 42 164

In this lab, you tried several of the MATLAB commands individually.
You could put all of the commands that you want to execute together in
an m-file (a file with .m
extension), and just run the file. If you put all of your m-files in
the same directory that you run MATLAB from, then MATLAB will always
find them. To create an m file, use an editor to type the commands and
once you are done, save the file with .m extension.

Open an editor screen and type the following code segment in
there. On PCs, the Editor Screen can be opened under File, then
New, the M-File. On Unix, you need to use an editor of your
choice (vi, vim, pico...).

% Lab(0) - lab0sample.m

A = [20 22 18; 12 16 12; 8
10 10]

B = [2 4 8

1 -1 6

-2 2 4]

C = A'

D = A*B

Save the file in the lab0 working directory. Once you saved
the file, make sure to change the Current Directory (at the top) to the
directory in which you have saved the file. Type the file name without
the .m at the end. This should run your script. If it
didn't run it, there is a possibility that your Current Directory is
not correct. To check where your are you can use the Unix like
command pwd. Also, you
can use the Unix-like command ls to
list the contents of the directory.

5. Modify the above program (include the
program in your answer sheet) such that it computes 10*A + B.
Show the results in your answer sheet.

6. Modify the above program (include the
program in your answer sheet) such that is computes a = W*P + B.
W is the same as A. P and B are defined as:

P = [ 2, 4, 6] ' and B = [-234, -155, -117] . Show the
result in your answer sheet.

7. After you run the above case, try
this, a = hardlims(a), what did this function do? Show your answer.

8. After you run the above case, try
this, a = hardlim(a), what did this function do? Show your answer.

**Post-lab Assignment (Due Monday July 12 before class)**

These problems will be part of Assignment Set (1)

Submit the commands and the results for each
question as an e-mail attachment. Please make sure your answer
are separated by the question number.

1) How do you multiply the corresponding elements of matrix A and B in the above example? Please note that I didn't ask you to multiply A * B. I want you to tell me how to multiply A(1,1) by B(1,1), and A(1,2) by B(1,2), ....? Find the command or the operator that does this for you and compute the result for the above two matrices.

2) Suppose there are two vectors in the 3-D space (x, y, z) defined as:

A = 3i + 2j - 4k

B = -4i + 3j + 2k

i, j, k are the unit vectors representing the x, y, and z
coordinates respectively. Use MATLAB to compute the DOT product of these two
vectors.

3) What is the CROSS product of these two vectors. Use MATLAB to compute this.

4) Use MATLAB to compute the variance and standard deviation for vector t that is created using t = 1:0.25:5.